Hungarian-born George Soros, has learned all their survival instincts from his father during the German occupation in World War II. They were Jews, so his father took out fake documents and found a place to hide. This was a man worthy of respect, in the First World War he was captured by Russian and later escaped from prison. Conclusion Soros: «law-abiding become a dangerous addiction, in order to survive, we must circumvent the law.» And he acknowledges that does not accept the rules imposed by others. He was accused of going beyond the limits of fair play in trade and stocks, and currencies.
Cramped by the communist regime, established after the Second World War, in 1947, Soros moved to Britain where he studied at the London School of Economics. After working for some time as a traveling salesman, he found work in a financial institution. While Soros has some experience in arbitration, it is mainly engaged in boring office job, did not shine, and with the blessing of the company, left. His goal was New York, but he could not get a work visa, because he was too young to be an expert in any field. This was a requirement for entry into the United States. Therefore, he «walked» the law and got himself an official certificate, which argued that the arbitration experts have to be young, because they die young, and the government admitted it.
Ultimately Soros founded his own hedge fund. Its investment methods ranged from thorough research to pure instinct. Soros once said: «… I suffered from back pain. I used the beginning of acute pain as a signal that in my portfolio that something was wrong.» This was the more pain in his back — to $ 10,000 invested Soros in 1969, turned into more than 2,8 million dollars in 1988. About Soros said that he has three investment techniques: 1. Start small. If things go, build a great position … 2. The market is stupid, so do not try to be omniscient … 3. Speculator must first determine the level of risk to which he is ready to go. » Some understanding about what can go wrong, Soros gives diagnosing the crash of 1987, in his essay «After the Black Monday.» One of his conclusions: managing monetary policy is a critical global problem in preventing the collapse of the stock market and recessions.
After the «Black Monday» (1987)
The collapse of the stock market in 1987 for the world economy has become an event of historic significance. With him are comparable crashes 1893, 1907 and 1929. However, the fall of 1929 the most widely known and in many respects the most significant. By comparison, however, we must be careful not to confuse himself with the collapse of its consequences.
During the crash of October 1929 prices on the New York Stock Exchange have fallen about 36 percent of Dow Jones shares of industrial companies, this number is almost identical to the drop occurring in October 1987. After the fall of 1929 shares regained nearly 50 percent of their losses, then dropped another 80 percent in the long bear market from 1930 to 1932. It is this Bear market is associated with the Great Depression, dominates the public imagination. And precisely because it so well remembered, his story is unlikely to be repeated. The immediate reaction of the U.S. government to collapse in 1987 have confirmed this idea. Since 1929 the monetary institutions made an important mistake of providing too little liquidity and finding themselves unable to resist the fall so the money supply.
The danger is now that the pressure to escape from recession, especially strong in an election year, could force the government to provide too much liquidity and thus further undermine the dollar’s value.
Technically, the 1987 crash incredibly similar to the 1929 crash. The main difference is that in 1929 the culmination of the first sales was accompanied by a few days later a second, which lowered the market to a lower minimum. In 1987 a second climactic moment was avoided, and even if the market is destined to reach new lows in the future, the model will be different.
Collapse in 1987 came as suddenly as the collapse of 1929. World boom in stock markets considered in the same unfounded and unsustainable, but few people were able to correctly predict the sudden turn of events. I got just as bad as any other. I was convinced that the collapse will begin in Japan. This was an expensive mistake.
The most compelling similarity between the 1929 crash and the collapse of 1987 — insufficiently appreciated by higher officials and the public — both the incident showed the continuing movement of historical financial and economic power in the global economy. In 1929, the United States were in the process of replacing the UK as a leading economic powers in the world. In 1987, the power flow from the United States to the Asian economic superpower Japan. Collapse in 1987 will be remembered as a signal event of this process, as well as a harbinger of changes in the international financial order. He revealed dramatic evidence of the growing disparities of the global financial system, based on the volatile and losing its reserve currency — the U.S. dollar.
In retrospect, easy to recover the sequence of events leading to the collapse. Stock market boom fueled by the growing mass of dollars, then the reduction of liquidity has created the preconditions for the collapse. In this regard, in 1987 also recalls the year 1929: recall that the 1929 crash was preceded by a rise in interest rates for short-term borrowing for deals with shares.
As it emerged the reduction of liquidity in 1987 — is a more difficult question. Definitive answer will have to wait until it is held quite a lot of research. But it is clear that the critical role played by international efforts to support the dollar — namely, through the Louvre Accord, signed in February 1987, the finance ministers of leading industrial nations called the Group of Seven — Britain, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the United States and West Germany . A few months after the Louvre agreement dollar was protected sterilized intervention in the financial markets, where domestic interest rates remained intact. When the Group of Seven central banks have found that they have to buy more dollars than they could swallow, they changed their tactics. After the then-Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone visits Washington in April 1987, was allowed to increase interest rate differentials between the United States and other countries to such a size in which the private sector abroad, wants to hold dollars. Banks essentially privatized the intervention.
While it remains unclear what — sterilized or unsterilized intervention — in fact, caused a decrease in liquidity. UHT intervention moved large sums of dollars in storage overseas central banks, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve may have inadvertently failed to throw the equivalent amount of U.S. domestic money market. Perhaps the monetary institutions in Japan and West Germany feared the inflationary consequences of unsterilized intervention, and their attempt to limit their national money supply led to a worldwide increase in interest rates.
I more prefer the latter explanation, although I can not exclude the possibility and the fact that the former also contributed to the restriction of bank credit. West Germans — the supporters of a strong anti-inflationary policy. Japanese are more pragmatic, and they, in fact, allowed their interest rates to fall and after the return Nakasone in Tokyo. But, when the Japanese saw that the policy of «easy money» only served to reinforce unhealthy speculation in financial assets, including land, they changed their minds. The government tried to slow the growth of the Japanese domestic money supply and bank credit, but speculation is already out of control. Even after the Bank of Japan began to shrink its monetary grip, the price of the bond market continued to strive upward. As a result, the yield benchmark bond servant Coupon # 89 has dropped to historic lows: 2.6 percent in May on the eve of how the bond market collapsed.
The collapse of the Japanese bond market in September 1987 became the first of a chain of events that will go down in the annals of history as the 1987 crash. Investors speculate massively on September bonded futures, but they could not liquidate their positions. Hedging against those losses led to a sharp drop in prices for December futures. Yield Release Coupon # 89 has risen above 6 percent before the bond market has reached the lower limit. At first it seemed that the collapse will go to the stock market, which was even more overvalued than the bond market. But in reality the speculative money moved out of bonds into shares in a vain attempt to compensate for losses. As a result, in October, the Japanese stock market hit new highs minor.
Implications for the rest of the world have been sadder. Government bond market in the United States became dependent on Japanese purchases. When the Japanese started selling U.S. government bonds, even in relatively small quantities, the bond market moved in during the fall in excess of any changes justified the fundamental parameters of the economy. Undoubtedly, the American economy was stronger than expected, but this force is directed into industrial production, and not to satisfy consumer demand. Prices for goods rose, encouraging an increase in stocks and rising inflationary expectations. The fear of inflation was more likely explanation for reduction of bond than its root cause. However, it was the increased incidence of the bond market.
The weakness of the bond increased disparity between the prices of bonds and stocks, which has developed since the end of 1986. Such inequality may persist indefinitely, as it was in the 60′s, but with the expansion it creates the preconditions for a possible reversal. The actual time required to turn depends on a confluence of other circumstances. This time, the main role played by political considerations: Reagan had lost his political luster and approaching elections in 1988. When renewed downward pressure on the dollar, the internal instability of the stock market turned lower in the stampede.
The first crack came when a popular guru of Wall Street technical analyst Robert Prechter before market opening on October 6 issued a bearish signal. The market responded a resounding fall of 90 points. It spoke of a basic weakness of the market, but such incidents have occurred in 1986, without disastrous results. At this time the situation worsened by the fact that the dollar also began to weaken. Tuesday, October 13 Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan announced that the trade balance shows «extraordinary» structural improvement. Therefore, data published on Wednesday 14 October, which showed improvement in the trade deficit only half of what was expected, seemed particularly bleak. The dollar experienced significant pressure in the direction of sales.
Following course unsterilized intervention required an increase in interest rates, which were to be more because of the earlier increases in Japan and West Germany. U.S. authorities were unwilling to take such a tightening, and on Thursday 15 October, when the stock market continued to fall, Finance Minister James Bay-Coeur, was reported to have put pressure on Bonn to lower interest rates of the West, threatening an even greater fall in the dollar. Reducing the stock market has continued to accelerate in the atmosphere reports that House committee to raise funds with the budget planned to limit snizhaemost taxes on risky «fire-sale» bonds issued by buying companies with financing through loans. Although the next day, this provision was rejected on October 16 stocks whose prices are rising in anticipation of a merger or acquisition financing through loans, dropped to such an extent that forced the professional arbitrage traders to liquidate margin accounts.
Then on Sunday, 18 October issue of The New York Times «appeared in a sensational editorial. Officials of the Ministry of Finance allegedly openly defended the lower dollar and pre-accused the West Germans in the stock market crash, which these remarks have helped to accelerate. In the «Black Monday» on Oct. 19 for some pressure to sell it, and so inevitably because of the accumulated stock market volatility, but the article in the Times had a dramatic effect, reinforcing the already existing instability. The result was the biggest one-day decline in history: the Dow Jones industrial companies shares fell 508 points, or 22.6 per cent of its value.
Analysts generally regard the stock market as a passive reflection of investors’ expectations. But in fact it active force, shaping them. It is assumed that rational investors’ expectations, but can not be rational in the face of true uncertainty. The greater the uncertainty, the greater the number of investors will probably see some signals on the stock market. In turn, the greater their investment decisions are taken in an attempt to keep up with market trends, the market itself becomes unstable. Reliance on market trends resulted in its logical conclusion in the programs of insurance portfolios. Portfolio insurance and other schemes to strengthen the trend, such as stock options and stock indices, in theory allow individual participants to limit their risk of price volatility amplification system. In practice, when such schemes are used too many people, the system breaks down. Oct. 19 came just such a failure. The market has become disorganized and panic reigned ……
The dossier, which should be lower, based on the report bureau EIR (Executive Intelligence Review) in Wiesbaden in Germany, issued on 1 October 1996, which is called «Summary of mega-speculator George Soros.»
The magazine «Time» described by financier George Soros as «a modern Robin Hood, who robs the rich to give to the poor countries of eastern Europe and Russia. It claimed that Soros makes huge financial gains by speculating against western central banks, and uses those profits to help post-communist economies of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union to help them create what he calls the «Open Society».
The man who broke the Bank of England?
Analysis of covert financial network Soros is vital to understand the true dimension «problem Soros in eastern Europe and other countries.
After the crisis of the European exchange rate mechanism in September 1992. When the Bank of England was forced to abandon efforts to stabilize the pound sterling out of the shadows came a little-known financial figure, stating that he personally made a $ 1 billion in speculation against the British pound. Speculator was the Hungarian-born George Soros, who waited for the war in Hungary under false papers. Soros left Hungary after the war, and became an American citizen, after several years spent in London. Today, Soros is based in New York, but it says little about who he is and what he is.
After his impressive claims to own «Midas touch», Soros allowed to publicly use his name in an apparent attempt to influence world financial markets.
Soros announced loudly, in March 1993. That the price of gold should climb sharply: he said that he had just received «inside information» that China is going to buy huge quantities of gold to its rapidly growing economy. Soros was able to cause demand to buy gold, which allowed prices to rise by more than 20% over four months, to the highest level since 1991. And that is typical for Soros, when simpletons rushed to buy, pushing prices higher, Soros and his friend Sir James Goldsmith secretly began to sell their gold with a large profit.
Then, in early June 1993. Soros announced his intention to cause Germanic sale of government bonds in favor of French. In an open letter to the editor of the London «Times» Anatole Kaletu, Soros said «Down with the D-mark!» At various times, Mr. Soros attacked the currencies of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Mexico, entering the newly opened financial markets which have little experience with foreign investors, which allows single-handedly, with large cash resources to manipulate the currency. Soros begins buying market assets in the local market, leading others with him, who naively assume that he knows something they do not know them. As in the case of gold, when the smaller investors begin to follow Soros, pushing prices higher, Soros begins to sell, making their 40% or 100% profit. Then he goes to another market, and often, and to a new country in search of another goal for his speculations. This technique is called «hit and run.»
Soros is the visible side of a vast secret network of private financial interests, managed by leading aristocratic and royal names in Europe, concentrated in the British House of Windsor. This network, called its members «club Islands, was established after the collapse of the British Empire after World War II.
Instead of using the powers of the State to achieve its geopolitical objectives, was developed by the network is holding in private financial interests, tied to the old aristocratic oligarchy of western Europe. The center of this «Club of Islands» is the financial center — London. Soros is one of those in the Middle Ages were called — Hofjuden, «court Jews», who was deployed aristocratic families. The most important of such «Jews who are not Jews» are the Rothschilds, who started his career with Soros.
Soros is American only in his passport. He — the global financial operator, who happens falls in New York, simply because there is money.His hedge fund reportedly manages some $ 11-14 billion of investors’ funds, the most prominent of whom, according to Soros, is the British Queen Elizabeth.
The secret fund «Quantum Fund NV».
«Quantum Fund» is registered offshore in the Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean Sea. This helps to avoid taxes and conceal the true nature of his investors and what he is doing with their money.
Soros saw to it that none of the 99 parts of investors who participate in its various funds, was not an American. Under U.S. law on securities, hedge fund should include not more than 99 wealthy investors, so-called «sophisticated investors». Creating his investment company as an offshore hedge fund, Soros avoids public scrutiny.
Soros himself is not even in the reign of «Quantum Fund». Legally it is an investment adviser «Quantum Fund» from another company, «Soros Fund Management» in New York. The board of directors «Quantum Fund NV» and no American citizen. His directors are Swiss, Italian and British financiers.
Understandably, Soros and Rothschild chose not to disclose his relationship, as well as do not publicize its ties in London, the British Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Israel and American influential circles. Therefore, the myth was created, that Soros is a lone financial «genius» who, through his talent detection of future changes in the markets, has become one of the most successful speculators. According to those who did business with it, Soros has never taken important steps without a heavy investment information on the person.
The board of directors of his «Quantum Fund NV» is Richard Katz, a man of Rothschild, who also sits on the board «London NM Rothschild» and is the head of «Rothschild Italia SpA» Milan. Another link with the Rothschild family is another member of the Board «Quantum Fund» Nils O’Taube, a partner of the London investment group «St. James Place Capital», which is the principal partner of Lord Rothschild.
A frequent business partner of Soros in various speculative matters, including the manipulation of gold in 1993. Though not related to the «Quantum Fund» directly, is an Anglo-French speculator Sir James Goldsmith, a cousin of the family Rothschild.
From the first days when Soros created his own investment fund in 1969. He owed his success to his family Rothschild banking network. Soros worked in New York in the 1960′s in a small private bank was closely associated with the Rothschilds, namely, «Arnhold and S. Bleichroeder. Inc.», Bank name, represented the Rothschild interests in Germany during the Bismarck. To this day, «A. and S. Bleichroeder. Inc.» remains the primary holder, along with «Citibank», the funds «Quantum Fund» Soros. George K. Karlvays associated with the infamous «Rothschild Bank AG» in Zurich, gave Soros part of the initial capital and led the first investors in his «Quantum Fund».
Attitude Soros to the financial community Rothschild is not accidental. We’ll have to make a small digression into history, to explain the extraordinary success of the simple private speculator, and the strange ability to Soros «correct play» so many times on these high-risk markets. Soros has access to «inside information» in some of the highest government and private offices in the world.
Since the Second World War, the Rothschild family tried to create a public myth about its own insignificance. The family was spending huge sums of money to create the image of a family of wealthy, but quiet «gentlemen», some of whom prefer to do fine French wines, some of whom devoted themselves to charity. They were involved in the creation of Israel and other high-profile projects, but in addition to such public actions were not so plausible case that the family prefers to keep away from its headquarters in London and hold over their less well-known branches, such as «Zurich Rothschild Bank AG «and» Rothschild Italia of Milan «- Bank of Soros partner Richard Ketsa.
According to former CIA officer familiar with the case of Soros, his «Quantum Fund» accumulated their capital (over $ 10 billion), with the help of a powerful group of «silent» investors who have allowed Soros to build capital to break the financial stability in Europe in September 1992.
Soros is one of several important tools for economic and financial control «Club Islands. Because of its connection with their interests had not been previously highlighted, it serves an extremely useful functions for the oligarchy, as in 1992 and 1993, when he began his attacks on the European exchange rate mechanism.
Although Soros’s speculation played a significant role in the final withdrawal of the British pound exchange rate mechanism, it would be wrong to consider his actions as «anti-British.» Soros began his education in London, where he studied under Karl Popper and Friedrich von Hayek at the London School of Economics.
Business ties with Soros, Sir James Goldsmith and Lord Rothschild brings him closer to the circle of the wing Thatcher, the British establishment. Helping British exit from the European exchange rate mechanism in September 1992. and simultaneously capitalize on this more than $ 1 billion, Soros helped long-term goal of the wing Thatcher in the weakening of the economic stability of continental Europe. Since 1904. It is a British geopolitical strategy — to oppose, at whatever cost, by any economic ties between the economies of continental Europe, especially Germany’s ties with Russia and Eastern Europe.
Soros and Russia
In the late 80-ies in Eastern Europe was established several Soros foundations that contributed to the promotion of democracy and free markets. In the Soviet Union in 1988 to support humanitarian projects, the fund is «Cultural Initiative». In 1992, to support basic science in the former republics of the Soviet Union created the International Science Foundation. In 1995, Russia has begun the work of the Open Society Institute.
Even in the Gorbachev era of the American book published in Russia «The Soviet system: the way to an open society.» In it, he quite openly preach the virtues of individualism and market economy.
In the post-Soviet Russia Soros went on to become more assertive. Approximately $ 100 million he spent on grants for talented representatives of the basic sciences. For many scientists in the absence of budgetary funds Soros money have become the only major source of livelihood. However, others blamed a philanthropist in «stealing» Russian brains, and even espionage. Indeed, scientists who worked at the Soros funds were required to report to the Fund on its work.
Other high-profile equity billionaire in Russia were supporting local libraries and the introduction of the Internet in research institutes. Business is on the territory of our country Soros is not interested. In an interview, published in 1996, he responded negatively to the question about the possibility of investment business in Russia. He said that these investments would cause «ethical contradictions» between his business interests and charity work.
A few months Soros forgot these promises and suddenly took part in a business acquisition. And at what!
It is part of billionaire Vladimir Potanin helped to become the owner of 25% of Svyazinvest’s shares on the infamous auction in July 1997. With this transaction, we recall, began the «war of the oligarchs and the vice-premiers»: Berezovsky and Gusinsky — on the one hand, and Potanin, Chubais and Nemtsov — on the other.
In this act Soros is still obscure. He put real money in the deal? And as it turned out that he was «on one side, with Anatoly Chubais, who disliked. In his new book «Open Society: a new look at the crisis of global capitalism, Soros called Chubais, the man who» sold his soul to the devil. »
The enemies are the Americans after the episode of «Svyazinvest» was Vladimir Gusinsky, which Soros in his book Soros on Soros spoke very warmly, and Boris Berezovsky, a billionaire who is closely communicated back to 1996. Soros even claims that he had suggested Berezovsky arranged for the then presidential elections «antizyuganovsky front» oligarchs.
On his meeting with Berezovsky Soros described in detail in the same book «Open Society …»:» I tried to draw him out of predatory capitalism to normal. He, in turn, tried to use me in the fight for the chairmanship of Gazprom .. . In June 1997, he invited me to Sochi to meet with Viktor Chernomyrdin … After the meeting, Berezovsky took me in his private plane to Moscow. By the way, he said, and Chubais, Nemtsov, and supported his candidacy. I do not believe it and asked himself Nemtsov. He reported that for the first time he had heard. «Over my dead body» — he responded.
Then I had dinner with Berezovsky in his «club» and trimmed (do not know, intentionally or not) under the gangster den, as it is to portray in Hollywood movies. I was the only guest. I did not send him the words Nemtsov, but said that the Germans claimed that he knows nothing about Berezovsky’s claims to become chairman of Gazprom. Berezovsky became very angry. He did not say so explicitly, but made it clear that I had betrayed him. This was a turning point in our relationship «…
In 2000, Soros called investments in Russia as one of the biggest failings. This is when the lost billions on the Internet and the euro.
According to published reports, Soros spends annually on its non-profit projects on average about $ 300 million, which is certainly a huge amount. Also, there is no doubt that these funds generate significant public good effect: for example, many Russian scientists have received Soros grants and were able to continue its scientific work.
The fact that Soros is a powerful organization demonstrates that often it represents the interests of a number of major financial institutions in their relations with national governments of various countries.
For example, during the financial collapse in Brazil in late 1998 — early 1999. Soros is spearheaded efforts to save money operating on the local market, major Western portfolio investors. Soros-owned investment funds have been among the largest creditors of Brazil, but George Soros spoke on behalf of all the major Western corporations operating in the Brazilian market and on equal terms negotiated with the governments of various countries.
Soros’ plan launched in early February 1999, after the collapse of the real, the IMF’s failed plan to rescue the Brazilian economy, which was assumed to provide loans to Brazil totaling 42.5 billion dollars.
First of all, the head of the Brazilian Central Bank has been appointed Arminio Fraga, (Arminio Fraga), until then answered in the above-mentioned company «Soros Fund Management» for the division of Quantum Group funds under the name «Quantum emerging markets growth fund». One of the first measures the new head of the Central Bank was the removal of restrictions to Brazilian banks to lending of foreign credit institutions. Before that Brazilian banks have been able to attract foreign loans worth 3.5 billion dollars, after the removal of restrictions it had increased to 55 billion dollars.
Simultaneously, George Soros convened in Davos press conference at which he urged the IMF and the top seven industrialized countries not only continue but also accelerate the issuance of a previous loan of Brazil, and also advised the private banks to join this effort. His point of view, he argued that the most favorable moment has come for western banks to establish their control over industry and banks in Brazil. Plan as a whole was a success: the position of Western investors have been preserved and strengthened, and the fall reals discontinued.
The above example is a major influence on the government of the country is not the only one. So, in June 1992, Soros was between the «liberal» ministers of the Government of Italy with a large group of British bankers. During the meeting secret from the public plan was developed much of the privatization of the Italian state-owned enterprises in the interests of a small group of financiers. The plan was subsequently implemented.
Currently he is chairman of the Open Society Institute and founder of a network of charitable organizations operating in over 50 countries. After settling mostly in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as in Africa, Latin America, Asia and the U.S., these funds are directing their activities in building and supporting infrastructure and institutions of an open society. They work closely with the Open Society Institute to implement a number of programs aimed at developing civil society, education, media, health and human rights, as well as the reform of the social, legal and economic nature. In recent years, the Open Society Institute and Soros Foundations Network has contributed over $ 400 million to support projects in these and other areas. In was founded in 1992 Soros, Central European University in Budapest. Currently, he actively supports the American University in Central Asia and sometimes in person visits it.
And finally …
«It is not important, you are right or wrong. The important thing is how much money you earn, when the rights and how much money you lose when you are mistaken.» Prominent American financier, engaged in investment business. Founder of hedge fund, Quantum, the Quantum imerdzhing Groce «,» Quota «, etc., as well as a large number of charitable foundations in 26 countries. Author of the book «Alchemy of Finance», «The Soviet system: an open society», «A vote for democracy.» The owner of real estate in the United States, Britain and other countries. Winner of billions of dollars. In Soros’s financial career has its ups and downs. So, playing in September 1992 for the pound / dollar, just a day Soros earned $ 2 billion during 1993, Soros’ speculative income was $ 1.1 billion On the other hand, in August 1998, the Soros Foundation in Russia have lost $ 2 billion, and the fall NASDAQ spring 2000 — nearly $ 3 billion in mostly Soros specializes in currency speculation. All the necessary information he receives from the usual newspapers, never using analytical materials Wall Street. Soros does not believe in technical analysis, and the basis of his investment decisions is confidence in the chaotic financial markets. Prices of stocks, bonds and currencies depend only on the people who buy them and sell. In turn, traders often operate under the influence of emotions, and not in accordance with previously adopted a strategy of trade. Able to do in the stock market. $ 1 invested in the Quantum Fund in 1969, now costs $ 4000
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